Web Technologies


HTML or Hypertext Markup Language is the basis of all websites. HTML is used to construct the structure and formatting of the website through the use of keywords called tags.


XML or Extensible Markup Language is a specification that allows authors to define their own elements and so create their own structured data format. In order to be accepted and processed, XML document must be well-formed and valid. Well-formed document is a document that is constructed according to XML specification. Valid document is a document that is constructed according to the rules of the specific XML format as defined by its author.


XHTML or Extensible HTML is an application of XML. In addition to the existing HTML tags, authors can create their own tags.


CSS or Cascading Style Sheets are used as a method of storing the formatting of the page separate from the structure of the page. This makes the website simpler to maintain and allows the style of the page to be changed without altering the HTML.


This is a scripting language used for enhancing the capabilities of the browser when dealing with HTML. It allows the content of your website to change without the need for it to be reloaded. JavaScript is the primary front-end language as it is available in all the major web browsers. JavaScript is also the driving force behind AJAX and Web 2.

Server side scripting

Server side scripting languages are mainly used for dynamically generating HTML, database access and allowing any heavy processing to be carried out away from the browser and at the client computer. Some of the more popular server side languages include ASP, ASP.Net (C#,VB), PHP and JSP. Unlike basic HTML pages, server side pages cannot be run directly in the browser, instead they need to be hosted on a web server.

Web Servers

Each server side language has its own Web Server. Most popular web servers are IIS and Apache. Web Server processes server-side scripts and constructs HTML web pages which are sent to the browser.


AJAX or Asynchronous JavaScript and XML is the ability to call the server and return data without the need to refresh the entire page. The advantage of this is that the response from the server will be faster as only the required data is returned. The page will be aesthetically more appealing as it will not need to be redrawn.

Web 2

Web 2 is a term that describes innovative and creative application of web technologies and design to enhance interaction and collaboration between people. Examples of Web 2 include social networking websites, media sharing websites, wikis and blogs.

HTML Editor

HTML Editor is a an editor used to create and manipulate HTML. They feature code, design and mix mode views allowing Web Designer to focus on the design rather than the code. Most popular HTML editors are Adobe DreamWeaver, Microsoft Expression Web and Open Source editors.